-ed (phonetic)

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The regular past tense and participle inflection in current English is '-ed'. This represents different sounds:

  • it is most commonly a plain '-d' (IPA: /d/), but
  • after alveolar consonants the vowel '-e-' is realized and '-ed' becomes the syllable '-id' (/ɪd/), as in the disyllables 'wanted' (/'wɒn tɪd/) and 'worded' (/'wɜːr dɪd/);
  • after some other consonants, such as '-s-', the sound is the unvoiced consonant '-t-' rather than the voiced '-d-': 'crossed' is the monosyllable 'crossed' (/krɒst/), and 'laugh' gives 'laughed' (/lɑːft/).

You may also want to see -s (phonetic).

In Early Modern English, the '-ed' inflection was often pronounced as a full syllable, '-id', /ɪd/, far more frequently than it is today. See further -ed in archaic English.