Anaphora

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Anaphora is a common term in rhetoric. It is the name of a Figure of speech, grouped, in AWE's Figures of Speech course, with Figures of sound patterning. It could also be regarded as a Figure of construction.

Anaphora is "the repetition of the same word or phrase in several successive clauses" (OED). Examples include Winston Churchill's speech of June 4, 1940 to the House of Commons, in which he expressed the determination of the UK to resist by anaphora: "We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender." (Taken from The Chuchill Society's website, [[1]]; AWE's formatting).

N.B. In the context of Grammar the word anaphora is used quite differently. It denotes the use of a word (often but not necessarily a pronoun) to refer back to another word or phrase already used in the same context. For example, the sentence ‘John gave his colleagues the news and they accepted it without complaint’ contains three instances of anaphora: ‘his’ refers back to ‘John’, ‘they’ refers back to ‘his colleagues’, and ‘it’ refers back to ‘the news’.

Etymological note: The word anaphora comes, through Latin, from the Greek ὰναφορά (anaphora), ‘carrying back, reference (of a thing) to a standard’, a compound of the preposition ὰνά (ana), ‘again, back, backwards’, and the noun φορά (phora), formed from the verb φέρειν (pherein), ‘to bear, carry’.