Burn (irregular verb)

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'To burn' is an irregular verb. Its forms are given here:

Base form past tense -ed participle Remarks
burn burned OR burnt burned OR burnt The variation between 'burnt' and 'burned' is a regular variant
burnt is less common in American English.
According to OED, "The distinction in usage between the two modern forms of the pa[st] tense and pa[st]. p[articiple] is difficult to state with precision. Burnt is now the prevailing form, and its use is always permissible; burned is slightly archaic, and somewhat more formal in effect; it occurs more frequently as pa[st] tense, or in combination with the auxiliary have than as p[articipial] adj[ective]."
See note [b] in category:Quirk class 1 A
This is one of the "the 250 or so irregular verbs" listed in Quirk 1985. The list "contains most of the irregular verbs in present-day English ... but is not meant to be exhaustive, particularly with regard to derivative verbs." AWE has copied most of the entries in that list. The verb 'to burn' belongs to Quirk's Class 1 A
Etymological Note: Originally there were two separate verbs common to Germanic languages. Old English. One was intransitive - 'wood could burn', but a person could not 'burn wood'. This was represented by the Viking forms brinnan, and later brennan. The other was the transitive verb 'to make something burn', 'to set something alight'. This common Germanic woird was brenna in Old Norse, brenn(i)an in Old High German, which has settled down to brennen in modern German. By a more or less complex series of metatheses, this became birnan, bernan and beornan in different dialects of Middle English. Up till the time of Early Modern English, the most common form was brenne, with a past tense brent: now, of course, it is burn and burned or burnt. The distinction between the transitive and intransitive verbs seems to have been lost by the thirteenth century.
The noun 'a brand', meaning 'a piece of wood that is burning in a fire', 'a firebrand' (for an example, see the Authorized Version translation of the story of Samson and the foxes), is an old past form of 'to burn'. In time, its meaning was extended to a mark of shame burnt into the skin of a criminal; a trade-mark, originally made by burning or scorching a name or mark onto such items as wooden barrels and cattle, and now a particular manufacturer's example of a general type of goods, as Coca-Cola is a brand of soft drink; and a sword-blade, perhaps because the way it flashes in the light resembles a burning branch. There is an old ballad Edward, Edward where the eponym is asked the sinister question: "Why does your brand sae drap wi' bluid, Edward, Edward?"
You may also want to consult brand-new.