Category:Quirk Irregular verbs

From Hull AWE
Jump to: navigation, search

Quirk 1985 lists "250 or so irregular English verbs". These are classified into seven classes. These are identified by reference to three characteristics.

  • The first is the use of suffixes in the past forms. These can be
    • the standard -ed suffix of the regular verb, with
      • the unvoiced variant -t, as in 'learnt';
    • and the nasal variant -n, as in 'shaken' and 'torn'.
  • The second main characteristic by which irregular verbs can be classified is V-ed identity in the two past forms: whether the past tense has the same form as the past participle.
  • The third is vowel identity: whether the vowel in the present tense is the same as that in the past tenses.

The following table is after Quirk (1985), p. 104. In it, the symbol '+' in any row means that the relevant characteristic (identified in the column heading) is present in that class; the symbol'-' indicates its absence. In class 2, either of two suffixes may be used with the past participle - as shown by the use of '+/-'.

It may be of some interest that Quirk 1973, an earlier book by Quirk's team, uses a slightly different labelling.
Table 3.12 Irregular verb classes
Class suffix
in past
V-ed
identity
vowel
identity
Examples:
V
(base form)

V-ed1
(past tense)

V-ed2
(past participle)
1 + + + burn burned/burnt burned/burnt
2 + +/- + saw sawed sawed/sawn
3 + + - bring brought brought
4 + - - break broke broken
5 - + + cut cut cut
6 - + - strike struck struck
7 - - - swim swam swum

Pages in category "Quirk Irregular verbs"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 256 total.

(previous 200) (next 200)

A

B

C

D

E

F

F cont.

G

H

I

K

L

M

O

O cont.

P

Q

R

S

(previous 200) (next 200)