Essays - Referencing

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Advice Leaflets

Advice leaflets originally produced for the Study Advice Service in the University of Hull, which holds the copyright:

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This needs to be carefully done in order to avoid plagiarism. The general rule is that ALL quotations MUST be referenced with the page number of the works from which they are taken. Keep a careful note as you go along, including page numbers. Check with your department on which convention is to be used; this should be in your departmental handbook.


When do you need to give a source? The following table is a guide to the procedure. For full details, refer to the leaflet and web page above or to your departmental guidelines. The examples given would need to be included in a reference list at the end of the essay or as footnotes on the same page giving full details of the work. Your bibliography (if you need one) is simply a list of all the works you have read or partially read to help you construct the essay, whether or not you have referred to them in the essay. If not numbered, the reference list must be set out in alphabetical order by author surname. Again, please refer to the Study Advice Services leaflet on referencing or your departmental policy on referencing. The important point, whatever system you use, is that it should be both clear and consistent.


Context Example
A direct quotation i.e. a verbatim (or virtually word-for-word) copy from a published work "words…words…words" (Thompson 1999 p. 26) or "words…words…words" (Thompson 1999 : 26)
Summarising or explaining an author’s ideas or argument which may have been expressed over many pages or a whole work There is the opposing view which holds that idea(s)… idea(s)…/ argument… argument (Thompson 1999) or Thompson (1999) has argued that words… words… words.