Georgian

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The adjective (amd noun) Georgian has two main branches of meaning, one geographical and the other historical.

  • In geography, it refers to one of two areas:
    • Georgia, a country in the Caucasus (between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea), formerly the Kingdom of Georgia, and then the Democratic Republic of Georgia, and the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. Its language is Georgian. Probably the most famous of its peeople was Stalin, born Josef Bessarionovich Dzhugashvili in 1878, who led the Communist government of Russia from 1924 to 1953, having succeeded Lenin. He is sometimes referred to as 'the Georgian'.
    • The State of Georgia, in the USA.
  • In history, it is used of various King Georges of the UK (and other monarchs in countries that are not dealt with in detail in AWE). In the UK, two particular periods are usually meant:
    • in design, including architecture, Georgian refers to work done during the reign of the first three, sometimes four, Georges, that is 1714 - 1830. It is succeeded by the Regency period (1810 - 1820), during which the future George IV acted as Regent for his father George III .
    • In English literature, the Georgian poets are those who wrote during the reign of George V, 1910-1936 - particularly contributors to five anthologies of 'Georgian Poetry' published between 1912 and 1922. The poets included Rupert Brooke, Edmund Blunden, G.K. Chesterton, W.H Davies, John Drinkwater, James Elroy Flecker, W.W. Gibson, John Masefield and Ronald Ross; the first editor was Harold Monro, and the second J.C. Squire. Poets that wrote in the reigns of the first two Georges, and some poets who wrote during the reigns of the nest two, are best called Augustan poets. (Georgian poetry also describes poetry written in the language of the Caucasian country, and this may be the commoner usage in various bibliographical websites.)
Etymological note: do not confuse Georgian with Georgic - though they share the same root. The forename George, to which Georgian refers, comes from georgos, 'a farmer', just as the farming handbook, the Georgics does.