Nôtre Dame (or notre dame, without the circumflex) is the French for 'Our Lady', the pre-eminent title of Mary the mother of Jesus. It is pronounced, in French, as it seems to be written: 'NOT-ruh-dam', IPA: /ˌnɒt ʁə ˈdam/, with the French 'rolled -r-'. In formal British English, it is usual to attempt the French pronunciation: in American English (GA), it is often realized as 'NOTE-er-dame', /ˌnoʊt ər ˈdeɪm/. (This is notable in the name of the University in Indiana.) Many places have been named Notre (or notre) Dame, including:
- churches, such as
- Nôtre Dame de Paris, the cathedral of Paris, sited on the Île de la cité in the river Seine. It is the setting of the novel of the same name by the French writer Victor Hugo (1802–1885), which is usually called in English translastions The Hunchback of Notre Dame, after one its notable characters, Quasimodo. This deformed and physically ugly character with a heart of gold was memorably poortrayed in two films, the first a silent film of 1923 directed by Wallace Worsley, produced by Laemmle and Thalberg with Lon Chaney as Quasimodo; the second a 1939 talkie directed by William Dieterle, produced by Berma with Charles Laughton in the title role.