Difference between revisions of "Iberia"

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*As far back as ancient [[Greek]], there was a [[homograph]]ic '''Iberia''', beyond the eastern Mediterranean. This was a kingdom between 302 BCE and 580 CE, occupying roughly the eastern half of the area now forming the country of [[Georgia]] in the [[Caucasus]]. It was controlled by the Sasanian (Persian) Empire from 523 to 626/627 CE, competing with the eastern Roman Empire ([[Byzantium]]}. The Arabic (Muslim) conquest of Persia (Iran) around 650 CE followed the establishment of the Principality of Iberia (580-880 CE), an aristocratic regime in early medieval Caucasian Georgia that flourished between the sixth and ninth centuries - with widely fluctuating boundaries, and governance. Around the millennium, the area was recognized as a Theme (administrative unit) of the Byzantine (eastern Roman) Empire, which survived till 1074. After some confusion, the area settled into the '''[[Kingdom of Georgia]]''' around 1008. This lasted till the 1460s
 
*As far back as ancient [[Greek]], there was a [[homograph]]ic '''Iberia''', beyond the eastern Mediterranean. This was a kingdom between 302 BCE and 580 CE, occupying roughly the eastern half of the area now forming the country of [[Georgia]] in the [[Caucasus]]. It was controlled by the Sasanian (Persian) Empire from 523 to 626/627 CE, competing with the eastern Roman Empire ([[Byzantium]]}. The Arabic (Muslim) conquest of Persia (Iran) around 650 CE followed the establishment of the Principality of Iberia (580-880 CE), an aristocratic regime in early medieval Caucasian Georgia that flourished between the sixth and ninth centuries - with widely fluctuating boundaries, and governance. Around the millennium, the area was recognized as a Theme (administrative unit) of the Byzantine (eastern Roman) Empire, which survived till 1074. After some confusion, the area settled into the '''[[Kingdom of Georgia]]''' around 1008. This lasted till the 1460s
  
*In the early developmentof the study of archaeology,  
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*In the early development of the study of archaeology, students sought guidance in the written texts of ancient Rome and Greece, the foundations of a liberal education at the time. Early geographers and historians were interested in 'exotic' cultures and in tribes coming into contact with their civilizations, and these interests led the pioneers in archaeology to consider theories of ethnicity in the emerging narrative of pre- and early history. At one point, the coincidence of names led to a belief that Caucasian and 'Spanish' Iberians were of the same stock: this belief is now discredited. A story was also developed about neolithic Britain, that one of its characteristic cultures should be traced to people "considered as one of a branch of the continental Iberians" (''[[OED]]'', 1899), citing W. B. Dawkins in ''Early Man in Brit[ain]'' (1898), talking of "the Silures, identified by [[Tacitus]] with the Iberians". This led to acontinuing characterization of one branch of prehistoric inhabitants of Britain as "dark little Iberians" (Ashe, Geoffrey (1957) ''King Arthur's Avalon'').
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[[Category:place-names]]
 
[[Category:place-names]]

Revision as of 18:06, 23 May 2020

Iberia (pronounced with a first syllable like 'eye', 'eye-BEER-i-a, is an old place-name, with one current and two older meanings.

  • The current meaning is 'the large square-ish peninsula at the south-west of Europe that contains Spain and Portugal' - also called the Iberian peninsula. It is etymologically connected with the name of the river Ebro, the longest in Spain. It was known to the Greeks as Ἴβηρ (Ibēr), and to the Romans as the Hibēr, Ibēr, or Ibērus flūmen. These gave rise to the name of the people and that of the peninsula.
    • The largest Spanish airline, Líneas Aéreas de España, is also called, and trades as, Iberia.
  • As far back as ancient Greek, there was a homographic Iberia, beyond the eastern Mediterranean. This was a kingdom between 302 BCE and 580 CE, occupying roughly the eastern half of the area now forming the country of Georgia in the Caucasus. It was controlled by the Sasanian (Persian) Empire from 523 to 626/627 CE, competing with the eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium}. The Arabic (Muslim) conquest of Persia (Iran) around 650 CE followed the establishment of the Principality of Iberia (580-880 CE), an aristocratic regime in early medieval Caucasian Georgia that flourished between the sixth and ninth centuries - with widely fluctuating boundaries, and governance. Around the millennium, the area was recognized as a Theme (administrative unit) of the Byzantine (eastern Roman) Empire, which survived till 1074. After some confusion, the area settled into the Kingdom of Georgia around 1008. This lasted till the 1460s
  • In the early development of the study of archaeology, students sought guidance in the written texts of ancient Rome and Greece, the foundations of a liberal education at the time. Early geographers and historians were interested in 'exotic' cultures and in tribes coming into contact with their civilizations, and these interests led the pioneers in archaeology to consider theories of ethnicity in the emerging narrative of pre- and early history. At one point, the coincidence of names led to a belief that Caucasian and 'Spanish' Iberians were of the same stock: this belief is now discredited. A story was also developed about neolithic Britain, that one of its characteristic cultures should be traced to people "considered as one of a branch of the continental Iberians" (OED, 1899), citing W. B. Dawkins in Early Man in Brit[ain] (1898), talking of "the Silures, identified by Tacitus with the Iberians". This led to acontinuing characterization of one branch of prehistoric inhabitants of Britain as "dark little Iberians" (Ashe, Geoffrey (1957) King Arthur's Avalon).