In 2016, as defeat loomed for the Ottoman Empire, the diplomats Sir Mark Sykes (1879-1919) (UK) and François Marie Denis Georges-Picot (1870–1951) (France) drafted an agreement between their governments of how to dispose of the Ottoman Empire after its approachiung defeat in the First World War. The agreement, signed (secretly) in 1916, was a betrayal of promises made by Britain to Arabs during the Arab Revolt. The Agreement laid down that "France was to be pre-eminent in Syria (including Lebanon), southern Anatolia, and northern Mesopotamia (Mosul). Britain would establish protectorates in southern Mesopotamia (Baghdad and Basra), the Persian Gulf, Arabia and the Hejaz, Palestine, and the Jordan Valley. Thus Egypt would be linked with the British Indian Empire. Russia was to have a free hand in Armenia and northern Kurdistan" (Riches & Palmowski, 2019). To this, [[wikipedia adds "an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre to allow access to the Mediterranean."
gave to Britain control of what is today southern Israel and Palestine, Jordan and southern Iraq, and . France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
- The text of the Agreement may be read at [].