Urania (from Greek Οὐρανὶα, '[the] heavenly [one]') is, in Greek mythology, the Muse of astronomy. Her name is pronounced, in English, 'your-ANE-i-a', IPA: /juː ˈreɪn ɪ ə/, although in her native Greek, and in most European languages, she is 'oor-AH-ni-a', /uː ˈrɑːn ɪ ə/.
- The poet John Milton used her in a more Christian incarnation in Paradise Lost (bk vii, l. 6; cited OED s.v. muse, n.1), where he apostrophizes her in the lines "Thou [sc. Urania]
- Nor of the Muses nine, nor on the top
- Of old Olympus dwell'st, but Heav'nlie borne, ...
- Thou with Eternal wisdom didst converse,
- Wisdom thy Sister, and with her didst play
- In presence of th'Almightie Father.
Milton also mentions her in his original invocation (bk I, l. 6: "Sing, heavenly Muse".
- Urania was also the name of one of Actaeon's hounds.
In more modern times , the name has been used for
- a genus of moths, Uraniinae or Urania sloanus;
- Uranium dioxide, uranic oxide;
- an asteroid.