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Urania (from Greek Οὐρανὶα, '[the] heavenly [one]') is, in Greek mythology, the Muse of astronomy. Her name is pronounced, in English, 'your-ANE-i-a', IPA: /juː ˈreɪn ɪ ə/, although in her native Greek, and in most European languages, she is 'oor-AH-ni-a', /uː ˈrɑːn ɪ ə/.

  • The poet John Milton used her in a more Christian incarnation in Paradise Lost (bk vii, l. 6; cited OED s.v. muse, n.1), where he apostrophizes her in the lines "Thou [sc. Urania]
Nor of the Muses nine, nor on the top
Of old Olympus dwell'st, but Heav'nlie borne, ...
Thou with Eternal wisdom didst converse,
Wisdom thy Sister, and with her didst play
In presence of th'Almightie Father.

Milton also mentions her in his original invocation (bk I, l. 6: "Sing, heavenly Muse".

Urania was also the name of one of Actaeon's hounds.

In more modern times , the name has been used for

  • a genus of moths, Uraniinae or Urania sloanus;
  • Uranium dioxide, uranic oxide;
  • an asteroid.